Counselling theories essays

The id and the organismic self both represent the repressed part of the mind. It is from these areas that anxiety and emotional difficulties can occur. We can also see similarities between the ego and the self-actualising tendency as both are concerned with mediating between the id and the super-ego. The actualising tendency seems to echo this. In my opinion, Psychodynamic therapy fails to identify the power the individual has to change if a caring and safe environment is available. Cognitive behavioural therapy is similar to person-centred as it too has an optimistic view of the client. Both Person-Centred therapy and CBT focuses on the here and now and both see the client as having the ability to change and lead a life of fulfilment regardless of their past experiences.

However, in comparison, a CBT counsellor may form an alliance with the client to set specific goals. The relationship between the client and the counsellor is one that relies on team work whereby the counsellor points out the behaviours that need changing and works with the client in order to adapt them.

When looking at the techniques of each therapy, a contrast between CBT and Person-centred is that it is a more directive form of counselling. The counsellor also gives homework to encourage progression.

Three Core Theories of Counselling

This CBT therapeutic tool is used as a guide in successfully treating the client. It looks at the vicious circle of Negative Automatic Thoughts NATs and the dysfunctional behaviours and emotions that develop from them. It can also be used to look at any assumptions or core beliefs the client may have. It is thought that these assumptions arise out of core beliefs or schemas, such as being told you are no good in the early years. These assumptions could lead to the client avoiding certain situations and in turn could cause a poor, depressive quality of life.

This would then reinforce the assumptions. However, this process is not carried out in all therapies.

Phenomenology - Person Centred Therapy

R , p He believed it leads to inequality between the counsellor and the client. A CBT therapist would use the case formulation to guide and structure the course of therapy. It enables problems to be prioritised in a useful way. B, , p In Person-Centred therapy questioning is rarely used. It is believed that if the 3 core conditions are in place there will be no need for questions as they may be seen as intrusive and a client may only give the answer they believe the counsellor wishes to hear. When looking at CBT and the Psychodynamic approach comparisons can be made between the different techniques that are used.

Psychodynamic therapy offers key therapeutic interventions such as free association, dream analysis, interpretation of transference and hypnosis. CBT can be seen as goal orientated and does not look at the clients past, rather it looks at the here and now. CBT recognises that change is possible and focuses on behaviour rather than the emotions. If a person has suffered conflict in their early years or been neglected or subjected to conditions of worth, as seen in Person-Centred therapy, these schemas can influence behaviours in adulthood.

It is the job of the CBT counsellor to try and adapt these negative automatic thoughts NATS through homework assignments that involved examining assumptions and testing beliefs. In Person-Centred therapy the therapeutic interventions include; the use of the 3 Core Conditions, immediacy, paraphrasing, summarising, reflecting and other active listening strategies. The skill of immediacy in Person-centred counselling can be compared to the technique of transference in the Psychodynamic approach.

However, immediacy in Person-Centred therapy is used to invite the client to look at what is going on between them in the relationship. Immediacy is a direct and immediate response from the counsellor.

Whereas transference in Psychodynamic therapy is a long and drawn out process that Psychodynamic therapists believe is central to helping the client to change and develop. In CBT and Psychodynamic theory the three core theories of empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive are evident but, unlike Person-Centred, are not seen as essential to the personal growth of the client.

CBT simply attempts to alleviate the issues quickly. We can also see differences in the time-scales of these two therapies. Psychodynamic therapists argue that in order for a client to be treated and to gain lasting change a lengthier, more in depth process is required. In conclusion, regardless of the differences between the three core theories it is evident that each has a mutual aim, which is to reduce symptoms of stress by creating a trusting and caring environment for the client to heal and develop. Which therapy will work best is completely dependent on the type of client.

Integrative counselling and psychotherapy is a relational process. This means that the therapeutic relationship is an essential ingredient in the work that the therapist and counsellor do together. The alliance between client and therapist is the vessel for the therapeutic journey; when it is valued and nurtured, it provides the safety needed for the work to take place.

In integrative counselling, the developing relationship allows the therapist to adapt their approach to the needs of the client, and for the client to feel safe enough to explore and express their needs. Integrative therapy is a collaborative process, and the relationship is central. Rory has over 10 years expereince as a counselling tutor. He shares his best tips on how to get the most from your counselling studies.

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Q1 Describe key elements of psychodynamic theory - Free Students Essays Examples

Integrative Counselling Definition. Integrative Counselling Model Integrative counselling can offer a tailored approach for working with clients. Free Download: 4 Types of Integrative Therapy. Click here to download your 4 Types of Integrative Therapy handout. Difference between eclectic and integrative Counselling.


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Integrative counselling. Involves a blending of theory and practice. Individualised, tailored model.

Assignment Types

Considers similarities and differences between relevant models when developing an approach. Eclectic Psychotherapy. Uses different techniques in an ad hoc way, like having a tool box of therapeutic techniques to draw upon when needed. Does not concern itself with theoretical conflicts between models.


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  7. Does not incorporate modalities into a new model. What does Integrative Counselling Look Like?

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    Pros and cons of Integrative Counselling. Main Benefits:. Can create a flexible and dynamic approach to suit a wide range of clients. Allows the therapist to consider their theoretical perspectives and create a model that works for their practice. Can be useful for clients who favour a mixture of behavioural and relational approaches.